The Longest-Running Evolution Experiment

If you ran evolution all over again, would you get humans? How repeatable is ? This video is sponsored by @BountyBrand.

Special thanks to Prof. Richard Lenski and team for showing me around the lab - it is an honor to be able to witness and document such a historic science experiment.
Thanks to Dr Zachary Blount for the help with research and setting up the competition time-lapse, Dr Nkrumah Grant for microscope images of the long-term line cells @NkrumahGrant
Devin Lake, Kate Bellgowan, and Dr. Minako Izutsu for being part of this video. Long Live the LTEE!

LTEE website -
Intro footage courtesy of the Kishony Lab -
Lenski, R. E., & Travisano, M. (1994). Dynamics of adaptation and diversification: a 10,000-generation experiment with bacterial populations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 91(15), 6808-6814. -

Lenski, R. E., Rose, M. R., Simpson, S. C., & Tadler, S. C. (1991). Long-term experimental evolution in Escherichia coli. I. Adaptation and divergence during 2,000 generations. The American Naturalist, 138(6), 1315-1341. -

Good, B. H., McDonald, M. J., Barrick, J. E., Lenski, R. E., & Desai, M. M. (2017). The dynamics of molecular evolution over 60,000 generations. Nature, 551(7678), 45-50. -

Blount, Z. D., Borland, C. Z., & Lenski, R. E. (2008). Historical contingency and the evolution of a key innovation in an experimental population of Escherichia coli. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105(23), 7899-7906. -

Blount, Z. D., Lenski, R. E., & Losos, J. B. (2018). Contingency and determinism in evolution: Replaying life’s tape. Science, 362(6415). -

Wiser, M. J., Ribeck, N., & Lenski, R. E. (2013). Long-term dynamics of adaptation in asexual populations. Science, 342(6164), 1364-1367. -

N, Scharping. (2019). How a 30-Year Experiment Has Fundamentally Changed Our View of How Evolution Works. Discover -

Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Mike Tung, Evgeny Skvortsov, Meekay, Ismail Öncü Usta, Paul Peijzel, Crated Comments, Anna, Mac Malkawi, Michael Schneider, Oleksii Leonov, Jim Osmun, Tyson McDowell, Ludovic Robillard, Jim buckmaster, fanime96, Juan Benet, Ruslan Khroma, Robert Blum, Richard Sundvall, Lee Redden, Vincent, Marinus Kuivenhoven, Alfred Wallace, Arjun Chakroborty, Joar Wandborg, Clayton Greenwell, Pindex, Michael Krugman, Cy 'kkm' K'Nelson, Sam Lutfi, Ron Neal

Research and Writing by by Derek Muller, Petr Lebedev and Casey Rentz
Animation by Iván Tello
Filmed by Derek Muller, Emily Zhang and Raquel Nuno
Edited by Derek Muller
Music by Jonny Hyman and from Epidemic Sound
Additional video supplied by Getty Images
Thumbnail image courtesy of the Kishony Lab
Produced by Casey Rentz

жүктөп алуу



  • I was wondering why they didn't have a variety of environmental conditions in the experiment. Imagine having colonies places in fridges with decreasing temperature over time and others in incubators with increasing temps. At the end of the vid it is explained that the steady environment also throws up mutations that persevere. Definitely makes me think about how a steady, sustainable state isnt necessarily steady and unchanging.

    empireofpeachesempireofpeaches41 мүнөт мурун
  • Sounds like a waste of time tbh

    A YoutuberA Youtuber43 мүнөт мурун
  • lol that means we should be prepared for something like COVID in the coming generations as well.

    Arty QuantumArty Quantum45 мүнөт мурун
  • Shall we extrapolate from this that these changes are proof that random code copying errors are capable of inventing vision, hearing, flight and consciousness? No we shouldn't, because it doesn't prove that.

    firecloud77firecloud77Саат мурун
  • Journalist: Is this like a bacterial crematorium? Mad scientist: ...Yes, yes exactly! :D

    James GastovskiJames GastovskiСаат мурун

    deezdeezСаат мурун
  • does the older man not kind of sound like charlie day after taking the smart pill? this is what would have happened if the pill worked. stupid science bitches couldnt even make i smarter.

    Andrew EvettAndrew EvettСаат мурун
  • Evolution? So they aren't bacteria any longer, they become something else? If so what have they become?

    Milo PepperMilo Pepper2 саат мурун
  • Generation 720000 - when a single bacterium mutates to produce flagella and swim towards the holy pipette of salvation

    neural jamneural jam3 саат мурун
  • So what are we going to do with these citrate eating bacteria?

    anony mousanony mous3 саат мурун
  • Not a great idea

    Ganesh TowarGanesh Towar3 саат мурун
  • Papertowel add xD now that's a first! Ignorance is a choice in this age of information ;) remember? probably not xD

    Faraday Da vinciFaraday Da vinci3 саат мурун
  • His voice sounds like Bill Gates-gag

    ShellyRogersShellyRogers3 саат мурун
  • Kent Hovind will ignore this video.

    LigHLigH4 саат мурун
  • Have any of the bacteria added a chromosome, or otherwise evolved to a new creature? If not, this doesn't show evolution. It shows adaptation within a species.

    W. FoxW. Fox4 саат мурун
  • That poor plant must have ptsd.

    Caper. hereCaper. here4 саат мурун
  • People who deny evolution need to see this.

    The Original ShakilThe Original Shakil5 саат мурун
    • You had E. coli when you began and E. coli when you finished. All they did is artificially intensify its resistance to toxins. You've essentially got E. coli on steroids now. Great job. Hope none of it gets into the population. I agree: people who deny evolution need to see this. It's fantastic evidence against evolution.

      SnapCracklePapaSnapCracklePapa17 мүнөт мурун
    • People who think this proves that random code copying errors can write the software that codes for the hardware that would bring to fruition concepts like hearing, vision, flight and consciousness... are not very deep thinkers.

      firecloud77firecloud7755 мүнөт мурун
  • Oh, cool. They are artificially creating bacteria that is THOUSANDS of times more impervious to natural toxins. What could possibly go wrong?

    SnapCracklePapaSnapCracklePapa5 саат мурун
  • So, did any of them stop being E. coli?

    Winged PantherWinged Panther5 саат мурун
  • 5:19 The answer to life

    Markus K.HMarkus K.H5 саат мурун
  • that's MICRO evolution - or mutations of a species into a SAME SPECIES category. Look how the COVID19 mutate from ALPHA to DELTA to LAMBDA.. mutations happen to common species as common as viruses and bacteria. MACRO-evolution - the fallacy that single-celled bacteria morph (evolve) into a 'human' - is dead myth, scientifically and logically.. A cockroach - no matter how many BILLIONS generation of MUTATION you will concoct In the laboratory - will NEVER evolve into a WHALE..

    Ecbio PhEcbio Ph7 саат мурун
  • You know that Bounty contributes to deforestation and thus to the great 6th extinction of life on Earth? Looks like a paradox considering the theme of this episode! People, please use a cloth, it's not that hard to clean...

    Laurent Allen-GuérardLaurent Allen-Guérard8 саат мурун
  • Wow germs in a dish... Are they still germs in a dish. Or have they evolved into a fish yet??

    MichaelMichael8 саат мурун
  • It wont end. It's a respiratory virus. It's seasonal. It might turn out in the long run to be safer to let COVID run its course without injections, due to the biological evolution of viruses against vaccines.

    Freddie NerkuryFreddie Nerkury8 саат мурун
  • The "Evolutionary Boundary" mathematical experiment that was completed in 2003 resulted in a surprising conclusion about a basic concept in Darwin's writings on natural selection. In spite of the great opportunities for biological evolution in small simple organisms, the full broad application of natural selection actually does something that is the opposite of what Darwin imagined: It makes it impossible for small simple organisms to ever evolve into larger and more complex descendants.

    Protect Animal LifeProtect Animal Life8 саат мурун
  • Interesting, but the problem of Darwins original Theory of Evolution, is that it has had to be divided into Micro Evolution & Macro Evolution. Micro Evolution exampled: means a Finch (small bird with strong beak) can develop a larger even stronger beak in response to a shortage of food supply, so that the bigger beak can allow the bird to feed on more diverse foodstuffs. Macro Evolution: A major change such as Fish growing legs and lungs to enable them to leave the Ocean and become a land animal. This is now thought to be impossible. For the simple reason that the necessary change requires a number of new body parts, each of which forms only a tiny part of the whole required change. In other words you can't just develop legs because the legs themselves need dozens of new bits to make the leg, such as bones, muscles etc, and each part needs to be developed one part at a time. If one part at a time was evolved, in preparation for a secondary and then further subsequent parts. The first part evolved being useless would be lost in a subsequent generation, before it could be built upon. This is because the mechanism for evolution cannot in reality "see" or "foresee" the environmental changes around it. As a result the creature involved dies out instead. The problem of Evolution is further complicated, by the known "Mass extinctions" that have hit the planet at various times. This has itself been further complicated by the recent discover of "Mass creation" events. Thanks mainly to our improving understanding on how to read DNA. Both extinction & creation events will of course involve not just "creatures" but also bacteria !!!!!

    James SmithJames Smith8 саат мурун
  • Meh. Simple solutions. Just stop using anti-biotics. Something else will kill it off. Perhaps evwn itself.

    Big Teddy BearBig Teddy Bear8 саат мурун
  • Resistance is futile, you will evolve infinitely and ultimately join the collective. Bring some donuts though, as there'll be nothing left to munch on besides your tiny fluorescent buddies.

    Marco CattaneoMarco Cattaneo9 саат мурун
  • Order within the next 15 minutes and you will get not one, not two - you will get three Bounties for the price of one!

    Klaus CleberKlaus Cleber10 саат мурун
  • Why don't you approach a more environment friendly way to cleaning rather than paper towels? You are a science enthusiast and promoting this🙄😒

    Gurpreet KourGurpreet Kour11 саат мурун
  • can't wait to get a wolverine bacteria!

    theicethieftheicethief12 саат мурун
  • does electrical polarity have any effect, or electrical potential hmmm i wonder? do a little research and reading on the work of DR. Michael Levin, or DR Robert Becker. (or continue to make assumptions i do not care anymore) wow u proved natural selection, amazing! Is there research being done on epigenetics? What is happening with bio engineering? Or we could play with all this nice stuff we do not understand and make all kinds of chimera's to play around and explore until we understand or disaster strikes.

    PumplumpugusPumplumpugus12 саат мурун
  • *** The bacteria evolution is like the Wuhan virus. Even though Covid-19 was created in a lab through gain of function research, it will keep evolving into different variants for many years to come! ***

    Joe wallaJoe walla13 саат мурун
    • Ever considered how antiviral (biological) and antivirus (non-biological) companies can boost their own revenue by occasionally releasing new pathogens/viruses into the environment? Just make sure you release them on the other side of the planet, so it looks like you had nothing to do with it. Would make a nice "story" for a conspiracy-based movie. Of course company directors would never ever consider this, as they're all good, loving, caring, and law abiding citizens.

      Marco CattaneoMarco Cattaneo9 саат мурун
  • Like artificially letting co r ona survive much, much longer then it ever would or could naturally.... By slowing the "spread" Has been making much worse varieties... Makes u wonder.

    P_Mime JuniorP_Mime Junior14 саат мурун
    • Feel that I have to kind of agree with that statement. By not vaccinating the entire world population within a relatively short timeframe, the likelihood of so called "escape mutations" will only further increase. This will lead to an endless amount of slightly altered booster vaccinations with only a few elite companies making more profit (many trillions) from the situation than what seems healthy for them, whilst the rest of the world-population is at their mercy. Guess only time will tell.

      Marco CattaneoMarco Cattaneo9 саат мурун
  • without faith in God and His Son Jesus Christ - you and your evolution god will burn in hell forever

    spinfowarsspinfowars14 саат мурун
  • @15:16 yep no surprise his false belief included virology based reasoning. Nice to see someone to entrenched in technocracy glimpse a shard of reality!

    Huo ShingHuo Shing14 саат мурун
  • Killer of 50% of the population, Thanos. Killer of 99% of the population, Professor Lenski. No infinity stones required...

    jesterleadjesterlead15 саат мурун
  • what would happen if a bacteria had a mutation that didn't make it more likely to survive and reproduce, but just to be more likely to be picked up by the eye dropper?

    Flynn TaggartFlynn Taggart15 саат мурун
  • The pointless waterfall perioperatively sip because area phytochemically license along a numberless pelican. polite, shaky love

    esteban collazoesteban collazo15 саат мурун
  • Yikes ,no gloves, open sleeves, open waste receptacle. And you wonder how bugs escape the lab.

    mark marcinikmark marcinik15 саат мурун
  • The MASKS are ONE BIG JOKE! They are spreading the virus more than stopping it! The public is like hey wear your mask!...

    GagsGags15 саат мурун
  • That's how I make sourdough

    FlamingpianoFlamingpiano16 саат мурун
  • It’s bacteria becoming bacteria it’s not a change of kinds is it really evolution?

    Riley PlunkettRiley Plunkett16 саат мурун
    • Yes, it's just smaller scale. You would need billions of generation to make a bacteria a fish.

      HexaRecterHexaRecter16 саат мурун
  • Indirectly u are making them more virulent

    Biology zone90Biology zone9016 саат мурун
  • I'm confused. Is the bacteria still E.coli? If it is no longer E.coli, but a completely new species, that is big news. But if this bacteria is still E.coli, just better E.coli, then while this experiment is certainly interesting, it is not nearly as big. Also, I would be interested in seeing how the citrate eating bacteria would fare in competition out in the real world. Would it be able to survive as well as naturally bred E.coli?

    Fist of LegendFist of Legend16 саат мурун
  • Define evolution.

    Kaname FujiwaraKaname Fujiwara17 саат мурун
  • Mrs Richards: "I paid for a room with a view!" Basil: (pointing to the lovely view) "That is Torquay, Madam." Mrs Richards: "It's not good enough!" Basil: "May I ask what you were expecting to see out of a Torquay hotel bedroom window? Sydney Opera House, perhaps? the Hanging Gardens of Babylon? Herds of wildebeest sweeping majestically past?..." Mrs Richards: "Don't be silly! I expect to be able to see the sea!" Basil: "You can see the sea, it's over there between the land and the sky." Mrs Richards: "I'm not satisfied. But I shall stay. But I expect a reduction." Basil: "Why?! Because Krakatoa's not erupting at the moment ?

    fred flintstonerfred flintstoner17 саат мурун
  • Sounds like Germ Warfare to me? Haven't we learned anything from the Wuhan Virus 🦠 yet?

    Russ GRuss G17 саат мурун
  • That was kind of a clever way of making a sponsor fit in the narrative just as long as it in no way affects the conclusions made. Careful, sponsorships can lead to misleading.

    Eddie SEddie S18 саат мурун
  • Bacteria can easily double in twenty minutes. That suggests the mass of the earth in under four days. Remember a drop of sea water contains some millions of virus particles. Don't panic. Stop breathing and live for ever.

    Mark RowlandMark Rowland18 саат мурун
  • Thank you, Prof. Richard Lenski for sharing your work and dedication with us. This is what real science looks like, and it's often damned hard work to test one hypothesis after another to understand how these mutations occur. Perhaps Veritasium could do another video on the implications for Covid variants and\or human evolution. Obviously the conditions in this experiment never vary, which allows the professor to rewind the clock and test one generation against another. In the real world, conditions are constantly changing. But if a population of any species is isolated long enough, something similar happens. We believe that accounts for fossils like Homo floresiensis, isolated on an island in Indonesia. And it raises the question of whether larger organism, like humans, could be genetically isolated in other ways to achieve a more directed sequence of mutation? Intriguing video.

    Gary K. NedrowGary K. Nedrow20 саат мурун
  • Day 42, Interesting... 42 is the answer!

    ST HavocST HavocКүн мурун
  • Yea... Keep letting it evolve to the point that it literally jumps out an eats your pecker..

    Brandon LedfordBrandon LedfordКүн мурун
  • What if you did an evolution experiment with the tallest Person getting a kid with the tallest woman other super tall persons also do this. If they do this it would mean that they get tall kids and what if the kid marry ? Could you get 3 or 4 meter (12 feet) tall people after ten generations? You could try the same with super intelligent people . Or people with good ears . Or good immune systems .

    Time TravelTime TravelКүн мурун
    • Eugenics and incest, what could go wrong?

      marasmusinemarasmusine10 саат мурун

    Jim KarkaloutsosJim KarkaloutsosКүн мурун
    • "THIS IS NOT EVOLUTION" Evolution is the change in allele frequencies in a population over successive generations, which this definitely is. "THERE IS NO NEW GENETIC MTERIAL EVOLVED HERE" They have literally identified the novel causative element by sequencing.

      Crispr CAS9Crispr CAS9Күн мурун
  • Profound Indeed, from one microbiologist to another , cheers!

    Hollywood MikeHollywood MikeКүн мурун
  • So basically how long does it take for Covid to evolve a zombie strain?

    Cenfracee Private LimitedCenfracee Private LimitedКүн мурун
    • longer than it'll take for us to cure everything, until then covid will stick around endemically

      ForkFork6 саат мурун
  • Answer: 42. Question: How many days does E. Coli need to fill out the observable universe?

    orlaninoorlaninoКүн мурун
    • @Andr jsja N Google 42

      orlaninoorlanino6 саат мурун
    • What does answer 42 mean, sorry for my bad english grammar??

      Andr jsja NAndr jsja N7 саат мурун
  • This is NOT Evolution, This is Adaptation. This isn't your back yard Darwin.

    Zeek MZeek MКүн мурун
    • evolution is just adaptation on a large time scale.

      SSSilkySSSilkyКүн мурун
  • Science is wonderful.

    Homer Alaska LifeHomer Alaska LifeКүн мурун
  • Evolution is real but Darwin didn’t know the full picture. No scientist ever knows the full picture.

    Homer Alaska LifeHomer Alaska LifeКүн мурун
    • that's why it's a theory, we're still tweaking it as we learn.

      SSSilkySSSilkyКүн мурун
  • he's in the early stages of evolution in the creation of the "Grey goo".. awesome..

    M HM HКүн мурун
  • *Generation 93'000:* "One bacterium evolved and is threatening me with a knife"

    You Are NextYou Are NextКүн мурун
  • Idiots be like: - "It is adaptation not evolution." - "Still bacteria." Veritasium makes a high quality explanatory and relevant information video, and most people still cannot absorb it. It is really sad how people are stupid. They cannot even understand basic natural selection theory as pure logic over chaos. There is nothing special on random mutations caused by chemical chaos generating natural selection. Most people don't understand and never will, they are naturally lazy.

    Fabio Di LucaFabio Di LucaКүн мурун
  • Micro-evolution... just to clarify.

    Rtistic PicturesRtistic PicturesКүн мурун
  • 42

    DRFDRF2 күн мурун
  • What was the Hypothesis of this experiment ?

    rosa madrigalrosa madrigal2 күн мурун
  • It amazes me how people can watch this and still not understand how common and natural mutations are it doesn’t mean that it’s bad it also doesn’t mean it’s good. It happens it’s life!! All bacteria and viruses have done this. It’s evolution at it’s finest…nothing stays the same

    Jazzy DJazzy D2 күн мурун
  • In the 99.9% that’s trashed think about all the variants that would be seen. It’s mind blowing thinking about it. Also picturing it multiplying in a person gives me a totally new perspective on germs and viruses. 6 or 7 generations a DAY!! 🤯

    Jazzy DJazzy D2 күн мурун
  • How do we know we aren’t one of these colonies?

    EricrcusterEricrcuster2 күн мурун
  • 75k generations? And yet...they're still bacteria.

    English Tips and TricksEnglish Tips and Tricks2 күн мурун
    • @Crispr CAS9 *Suggesting they would be something other than bacteria is suggesting that the something could not be a descendant of its ancestors, it's a contradiction.* Thanks for acknowledging that they will never be anything other than bacteria.

      firecloud77firecloud7737 мүнөт мурун
    • 75k generation is way to small + they have no competition and the environment is perfectly constant.

      HexaRecterHexaRecter16 саат мурун
    • "And yet...they're still bacteria." Of course they're still bacteria, that's how evolution works. Descent with modification. Suggesting they would be something other than bacteria is suggesting that the something could not be a descendant of its ancestors, it's a contradiction.

      Crispr CAS9Crispr CAS92 күн мурун
  • The magnificent hamburger perceptually walk because environment prospectively vanish times a motionless butcher. ambiguous, evasive operation

    Oscar SalazarOscar Salazar2 күн мурун
  • Christians will say this is fake

    foxat0micfoxat0mic2 күн мурун
    • It's not fake in the least. It just doesn't prove that humans evolved from a single celled organism by way of random code copying errors and natural selection.

      firecloud77firecloud7734 мүнөт мурун
    • Of course, they do not understand the basic fundamentals of science.

      Alexander KaiserAlexander KaiserКүн мурун
    • they've already started lol.

      SSSilkySSSilkyКүн мурун
  • I can't even keep my sourdough alive...

    CarolusBuchwurmCarolusBuchwurm2 күн мурун
  • Imagine that dishcloth represented a virus on a facemask? Imagine it. Imagine it on a child. Imagine it on a person who puts the mask in their pocket and puts it on to enter a store and then puts it back in their pocket.

    GagsGags2 күн мурун
    • @Greywolf757 I know what the ‘POINT’ is. You missed the point. Either way the mask is actually spreading it! First off literally any mask you buy at the store is not a medical mask and the others that look cool are just that ‘fashion’ masks. Secondly nobody is changing the mask every few hours and they are not washing hands after touching the mask and people wear same mask day all day. They pull a mask down to eat or drink, well the virus where did it go? Now its on the chin and the fingers. Then people touch their faces over and over and virus gets all over. Imagine this with children and teens touching their faces dozens and dozens of times. It speads to the hands and from there everywhere. If you filled up a coke can with the virus that is enough for everyone on the planet to be sick. The virus is minuscule in size and doesn’t die right away. I would say the masks actually make the issue worse with children. Watch people go into a store they get outta the car put the mask on, come out and take it off. Where did the virus go? It is literally Stupid and comical how people think the masks are working when they are not even close to using them correctly nor do they even have a medical mask. Go ahead go to the store or on Amazon and READ the label. You will be shicked, odds are you cant even find a real medical mask that will stop the virus. All your doing is making a diaper and having your blow hole shoot virus everywhere. Just watch somebody for 20 mins you will get the point now watch a child, even worse. Stupid Americans is be what we is! If you do ANYTHING incorrect with a mask that means you are spreading it. There is no Magical middle ground like I tried and that's good enough. Its either you contaminated something or you did not.

      GagsGags16 саат мурун
    • The point of a face mask is to stop you from spreading the virus, not to stop you from getting it. The entire process requires that you care about other people. If everyone is selfish then everyone suffers.

      Greywolf757Greywolf75716 саат мурун
  • Subindo please🙏

    Fikri AlfariziFikri Alfarizi2 күн мурун
  • I knew it 42!

    Siloms WorldSiloms World2 күн мурун
  • 3:03. Quality of video during online classes.

  • At 5:20 the answer is 42 👻

    Quinn ParkQuinn Park2 күн мурун
  • I wonder at what generation will the bacteria start to grow arms and legs.

    WavemakerWavemaker2 күн мурун
  • Cleaning up using paper is incredibly environmentally wasteful. Disastrous. The immune system can easily resist the sponge bacteria and things like those keep our immunity going, instead of it atrophying Sponsorships are ok, but i see this as something that promotes harm more than any good I use cellulose sponges (because plastic ones dont really decompose ,ofc). edit; typo

    Croissant :{Croissant :{2 күн мурун
  • Id love more biology videois ^^

    Croissant :{Croissant :{2 күн мурун
  • day 42

    LucyRoseLunaLucyRoseLuna2 күн мурун
  • I was attacked by my cat last year and have an incredibly rare actinomyces neuii infection of some of the bites. Before this, I hadn't been on antibiotics since I was a toddler, and during the first few courses last August, I joked I hoped never to be on them again. Now that we got DNA testing of the tissue to suss out the bacteria, I'm about 6 weeks in to a course of antibiotics that will last between 3 and 18 months, with an average of about a year. So the first minute of this video just made me feel fantastic.... Fantastically paranoid, that is.

    Pearl SPearl S2 күн мурун
  • Technically this is adaption, not evolution: the bacteria is adapting to be able to survive the poison, not turning into something other than the bacteria it was at the start. At the beginning and end, it’s still the same kind of bacteria, just with the ability to endure the greater concentration. Not true evolution.

    Caitlyn FosterCaitlyn Foster3 күн мурун
    • @Crispr CAS9 Wow, your exposition on classifications explained how these bacteria, given enough time, will eventually write the novel code (by way of random code copying errors and natural selection) for the novel hardware that will enable the realization of novel concepts like hearing, vision, flight and consciousness.

      firecloud77firecloud7716 мүнөт мурун
    • @Caitlyn Foster "“Eukaryote” simply means an organism with dna in chromosomes contained in a distinct nucleus in its cells." Eukaryotes are members of the clade Eukaryota. The packaging of their DNA is the origin of the name and an identifying trait of the group, but saying that an organism is a eukaryote says far more than simply that it has a nucleus. In fact, it is possible that a lineage of bacteria could develop a nucleus, at which point they would STILL be bacteria and STILL NOT be eukaryotes, because those terms are used to refer to clades, not characteristics. "everything should be classified exactly as its evolutionary ancestors were." Humans are also classified as hominids, as primates, as mammals, as therapsids, as synapsids, as amniotes, as tetrapods, as stegocephalians, as rhipidistians, as sarcopterygians, as teleostomians, as gnathostomates, as vertebrates, as chordates, as deuterostomes, as bilaterians, as metazoans, opisthokonts, and as amorpheans. Each of which is a subset of the next. Suggesting that something NOT be classified as in the clade of their ancestors is to say they AREN'T descended from their ancestors. How could something not be a descendant of its ancestors? That does make any sense, does it?

      Crispr CAS9Crispr CAS92 күн мурун
    • @Crispr CAS9 “Eukaryote” simply means an organism with dna in chromosomes contained in a distinct nucleus in its cells. Yes, I would say we fit that classification; but you’ve avoided the entire question by throwing out a vague term. We aren’t talking about how our cell nuclei work. We’re talking about your opinion that everything should be classified exactly as its evolutionary ancestors were.

      Caitlyn FosterCaitlyn Foster2 күн мурун
    • @Caitlyn Foster " from a bacterium-like starting point" Note the 'like' in that. LUCA was a prokaryote, but it was NOT a bacteria. "Are you saying that makes all life, whether fish or dogs or humans, simply “bacteria” because that is what we supposedly came from?" All animals, including humans, are still eukaryotes because we descended from eukaryotes. Mushrooms and plants are also eukaryotes.

      Crispr CAS9Crispr CAS92 күн мурун
    • @Crispr CAS9 So... correct me if I’m wrong. The theory of evolution currently has the idea that all life evolved from a bacterium-like starting point, though it branched out and different branches developed differently. Are you saying that makes all life, whether fish or dogs or humans, simply “bacteria” because that is what we supposedly came from?

      Caitlyn FosterCaitlyn Foster2 күн мурун
  • Shouldn't they wear gloves? :D Awesome video !

    binslagalabinslagala3 күн мурун
  • So 42 is the universe...and everything?

    Rasmus OdgaardRasmus Odgaard3 күн мурун
  • Hello Monkey guys 😂

    JR HsN.2JR HsN.23 күн мурун
    • what's up.

      SSSilkySSSilkyКүн мурун
  • I love science ❤ It's like being a part in the evolution of knowledge

    delta444delta4443 күн мурун
  • So it metabolizes citrate? yes. But it's still E coli? You confirmed it? yes. Okay. Let me know when it doesn't pass an E coli identity test.

    Jim HarrisJim Harris3 күн мурун
  • So when it will start speaking?

    Sadique KhanSadique Khan3 күн мурун
    • maybe around generation 6 quadrillion lol.

      SSSilkySSSilkyКүн мурун
  • Please make sure you close that lab door tightly we don’t want new stuff coming out from labs 🧫

    HazHaz3 күн мурун
  • Replace the word evolution with adaptation please. Because science. Evolution implies information being ADDED to the genome. Please show evidence of this.

    JC WoodJC Wood3 күн мурун
    • @JC Wood Medical testing. It's coming.

      To Serve ManTo Serve Man22 саат мурун
    • @Crispr CAS9 " Fine, then I guess we both agree that all life 'adapted' from a single common ancestor over the course of 4 billion years, right?" Um, no. The whole point is that LIFE IS THE PRODUCT OF INTELLIGENT DESIGN. And only a MORON refuses to see that. Now, what that intelligence is, I leave up to individual interpretation. Believing that life evolved because it rained on rocks is about as stupid as it gets.

      JC WoodJC WoodКүн мурун
    • @To Serve Man I am the only one of you who actually argued using reason and explained the reasoning. But I am the dolt? Lol. DUNNING-KRUGER, folks. They are so superior in their own minds they can't comprehend how stupid they actually are. I have explained the logic and the reasoning of why what you call evolution is a FANTASY, and is actually just adaptation. Since you are incapable of doing anything but responding with flat, regurgitated statements devoid of reasoning, you have lost the argument. That is how this actually works, and all the ad-hominem that followed pretty much proved it.

      JC WoodJC WoodКүн мурун
    • @JC Wood @"Thanks for proving my point, and my case. " No you have demonstrated that forms other than reasoning are going to be necessary when marginalizing you dolt liars. I'm sorry but I've talked it over with gawd and he agrees: It is medical testing for the lot of you.

      To Serve ManTo Serve ManКүн мурун
    • @Crispr CAS9 Thanks for proving my point, and my case. Feels good.

      JC WoodJC WoodКүн мурун
  • Can someone help me understand? Because it doesn't make sense to me.

    EquilibriumEquilibrium3 күн мурун
    • @Equilibrium ok, i'll try to remember to do it tomorrow, but my brain is turning off.

      zhou seizhou sei3 күн мурун
    • @zhou sei The video is long, full of information that I couldn't retain quite as good although watching it over and over. So i guess the whole thing, but you can give me a quick summary

      EquilibriumEquilibrium3 күн мурун
    • observe e coli, new proteins pop up... some are helpful, others not so much. or what part was difficult, i don't wanna limit anything here...

      zhou seizhou sei3 күн мурун
  • This is really cool, but let's all hope those hyper mutant e coli don't accidentally get released into the wild from that building being destroyed by a natural disaster or something.

    MichaelMichael3 күн мурун
    • honestly most of them would probably die, they've been cultivated in an unchanging medium for 37 years, being exposed to the real world which is full of other types of bacteria and substances might not be great for them. that's just a guess on my part though, I could be completely wrong.

      SSSilkySSSilkyКүн мурун
  • I read about this experiment on Dawkin's The Greatest Show On Earth book. This experiment is astonishingly great. Your video doesn't fall behind, great content. Thank you so much for that.

    Luciano StabelLuciano Stabel3 күн мурун
  • Can you make a relativity-based explanation of the tides in oceans?!

    Islam MokhtarIslam Mokhtar3 күн мурун
  • The fresh ping preoperatively suck because speedboat routinely squeal through a erratic judge. chubby, scattered attraction

    Crypto SecutiryCrypto Secutiry3 күн мурун